History of Psychopharmacology
Editor(s): Francisco López-Muñoz, Cecilio Álamo, Edward F. Domino
Publication date: 2014-03-15
Weight (g): 3650
Width (mm): 170
Height (mm): 113
Depth (mm): 244
Editor(s): Francisco López-Muñoz, Cecilio Álamo, Edward F. Domino
Publication date: 2014-03-15
Weight (g): 4230
Width (mm): 170
Height (mm): 140
Depth (mm): 244
The cover of the book is a mosaic of the first figure of Chapter 1, Pinel in Bicêtre freeing the mentally ill from the Bicêtre Asylum in Paris. Each mosaic element is a figure from the text.
First published in 2006 in Spanish, NPP Books is proud to publish the revised and updated English edition of the History of Psychopharmacology. Leading international authors from multiple disciplines have contributed to this book, which describes the historical development of the use of pharmaceuticals in psychiatry. This book gives a historical perspective of the many treatises and compendia of psychopharmacology.
The work is divided into four volumes and 15 sections:
Volume 1: The Origins of Scientific Medicine: Biological Pillars on the Birth of Psychopharmacology
Section 1: History of Psychiatry
A brief history of clinical psychiatry is described, with the sentinel works of Pinel, Esquirol, Freud, Delay, Deniker, and others.
Key terms: National Academy of Medicine in Paris, the first psychiatrist, Ancien Régime, insanity as a physiological concept, moral treatment, brain lesions, degeneration theory, legal medicine, Lombroso, Griesinger, Kraepelin, hysteria, psychoanalysis, psychopathology, psychopharmacological psychiatry, Charcot, ego, theory of seduction, infantile sexuality, unconscious self, antipsychiatry, community psychiatry, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Jaspers, Binswanger, Ey.
Section 2: “Psychoactive” Substances before the Development of Psychotropic Drugs: The Origins of Scientific Medicine
This section explores the historical evolution of the use of psychotropic substances, and how the concept of the pathological state of mind has changed since Classic Antiquity, from the approach of Hippocratism and Galenism, to physicalization of mental illness up to the mid-20th century.
Chapters 2 through 5.
Key terms: Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Galen, poppy, hellebore, mandrake, nightshade, Empedocles, Isidore of Seville, Arnau de Vilanova, Huarte de San Juan, Avicenna, Renaissance period, demonic cause of illness, henbane, belladonna, opium, quinine, rauwolfia, Dioscorides, Monardes, Chinese medicines, analgesics, muscle relaxants, anesthetics, Conolly, Reil and “psychiatry”, Schmiedeberg, Binz, Magendie, general hospitals, Merck, patent medicines.
Section 3: Basic Research and its Contribution to the Advance of Psychopharmacology
In this section, the breakthroughs of modern psychiatric drugs are presented. During the first half of the 20th century, the basic and experimental disciplines of therapeutic psychiatry and pharmacology were achieved. Introduced in these chapters are the concepts of neuronal theory, the discovery of the processes of neurotransmission, the advancements in electronic microscopy, the great advances in pharmaceutical chemistry, the introduction of animal models of mental illness, the introduction of techniques in radioligands and autoradiography, the development of molecular biology, and the genomic and proteomic techniques.
Chapters 6 through 15.
Key terms: Cajal, neurons, neurotransmitters, synapse, patch-clamp, neuronists, anti-reticularists, axon, functional systems, Dale, Loewi, acetylcholine, von Euler, Axelrod, Katz, norepinephrine, Ehrlich, receptor, Ahlquist, Black, Carlsson, signal transduction, Lefkowitz, Kobilka, G protein-coupled receptors, regulation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, phosphoinositide, diacylglycerol, molecular biology, DNA, RNA, cloning, genomics, SNPs, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, pharmacophore, antidepressants, high-throughput screenings, PET, SPECT, GC, MS, LC, therapeutic drug monitoring, animal models, open field test, light-dark box test, Pavlov.
Section 4: Contribution of Clinical Disciplines to the Development of Psychopharmacology
This section deals with the historical contributions of the clinical disciplines, such as clinical trials, biostatistics, and image diagnostic techniques.
Chapters 16 through 18.
Key terms: Placebo effect, randomized clinical trials, Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the FD & C Act, phases of clinical trial in drug development, safety, efficacy, dose-response relationship, group size, response variable, p-value, sequential design, meta-analysis, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, functional MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography.
Section 5: History of Biological Theories of Mental Disorders
This section discusses the history of biological theories of the principal psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse disorders) and how psychopharmacology has not only been used, but also how it has contributed to their postulates and developments.
Chapters 19 through 22.
Key terms: Monoamine, dopamine/receptors, catecholamine, reserpine, serotonin/receptors, L-DOPA, norepinephrine, mescaline, the dopamine and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepine, 5-HT and depression, norepinephrine and depression, GABA, benzodiazepines, ethanol, barbiturates, GABA receptor, substance abuse disorders.
Volume 2: The Revolution of Psychopharmacology: The Discovery and Development of Psychoactive Drugs
Section 6: “The Revolution of Psychopharmacology”: History of Drug Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
This section analyzes the development of the different families of drugs that are used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, from antiquity through the present, starting from opium, cannabis, mandrake, henbane, and dewtry. Pharmacotherapy is then explored: bromide for anxiety and mania; morphine was isolated; choral hydrate for insomnia; barbiturate acid for schizophrenia; phenylpropanolamine, which led to amphetamines.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the use of dangerous and/or ineffective medicines exploded, including alcohol, camphor, cocaine, castor oil, manganese, and heroin, which was sold in infant teething formulas. The inappropriate uses of these ingredients led to the introduction of regulations such as the US Pure Food and Drug Act, and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
The era of modern of psychopharmacology began in the mid-20th century with the introduction of psychotropic drugs. These drugs included lithium for mania, chlorpromazine, and reserpine for psychosis, meprobamate for anxiety and iproniazid for depression. These pages tell the brief, yet important, history of antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, as well as other pharmacological approaches used in modern psychiatry.
Chapters 23 through 41.
Key terms: Bromide, chloral hydrate, hyoscine, malonylurea, barbituric acid, spectrophotofluorometer, Ayurvedic medicine, Rauwolfia Serpentina, Ounmaad, Labroit, Delay, chlorpromazine, Phenergan, neurolytics, haloperidol, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, major tranquilizers, clozapine, atypicality, hydrazidic antidepressants, MAOIs, insulin coma therapy, bromide sleep cures, cardiazol shock, water cure. ECT, fluoxetine, SSRI, TCA, NERI and dual uptake inhibitors, Cade, lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, bipolar disorder, vigabatrin, felbamate, gabapentin, Topiramate, meprobamate, neurosis and psychosis, benzodiazepines as anxiolytics, non-benzo anxiolytics, bromides for epilepsy and chloral hydrate as a hypnotic, barbiturates (malonylurea), Fischer in the discovery of pentothal, phenobarbital, non-benzo hypnotics: zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon for insomnia, Rush, the father of American Psychiatry, Keeley League, Methadone, norcaine, development of a cocaine vaccine, nalmefene, Ibogaine, cannabis, mandrake, henbane, dewtry/datura, poppy, Arcanum/laudanum, psychopharmacology, neuropsychopharmacology, history of rauwolfia, the discovery of chlorpromazine, the discovery of haloperidol, the discovery of clozapine, atypicality, discovery of MAOIs, cheese effect, atypical depression, endogenous depression, the discovery of imipramine, Harrison Tax Act of 1914, Kefauver-Harris Act of 1962.
Section 7: Other Pharmacological Approaches in Psychiatry
This section addresses the past treatment options outside the pharmacological cache to psychiatric ailments such as the treatment of dependencies, biological therapies, psychostimulant drugs, and phytotherapeutic remedies.
The ancient Greeks used hellebore to expulse evil spirits from the body. Other therapies, such as laxatives and sedatives, hydrotherapy, trephining, bloodletting, and circular swing, were commonly used for mania, sleep, and depression.
The early 1900s saw the emergence of psychostimulants and psychotomimetics, which failed to treat psychiatry illnesses, and may even have added to the burdens of drug abuse.
Chapters 42 through 49.
Key terms: Laxatives, emetics, sedatives, tonics, counter irritation, bloodletting, trephining, fever treatment, hydrotherapy, restraints, circular swings, rotatory machines, shock treatment, Cerletti, cramp fish, paludoterapia, ephedra, ephedrine, methylxanthenes, psuedomimetics, empathogens, entactogens, ant-aggression drugs, cognitive disorders, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, cerebrovascular dementia, cholinergics, glutamatergic, beta-amyloid vaccine development, endocrine and immunological treatments, stress, psychosomatic, Asia Minor, Greece, opium wars, Treaty of Nanking, opioid receptor discovery, soporific sponge.
Section 8: Drugs and Psychotropic Drugs: A Historical Relationship
Finally, the last section of this volume deals with the close relationship between the therapeutic and recreational aspect of certain psychoactive substances, which currently make up the social scourge of drug abuse.
Chapters 50 through 54.
Key terms: hallucinogens, sorcerer, Amazonian tribe, coca leaves, cocaine, cannabis, Europe, Vietnam War, counterculture movement, World Health Organization, drug addiction treatment centers, AIDS, Inter-Ministerial Commissions, United Nations, United Nations International Drug Control Program, International Narcotics Control Board, nongovernmental organizations, public health, sanitary model, methadone, needle exchanges, Hesiod, Morpheus, Odyssey, Herodotus, Theophrastus, Marcus Aurelius, migraines, Ebers’ Papyrus, Middle Ages, Arabs, Crusades, Holy Land, Medica, Dioscorides Dutch, Portuguese, British Empire, English East India Company, Christianity, opium, opiate, amphetamines, synthesized drugs, hallucinogens, alcohol, tobacco, stimulants, benzodiazepines, efficacy, tolerability, acute intoxication, abstinence.
Volume 3: The Consolidation of Psychopharmacology as a Scientific Discipline: Ethical-Legal Aspects and Future Prospects
Section 9: Public and Private Institutions and the Advancement of Psychopharmacology
This section discusses the role of the pharmaceutical industry on the development of psychopharmacology, its relationship to academia, the contribution of scientific and professional associations to psychopharmacology, and the role of government as regulator for safe and effective medicines.
Chapters 55 through 58.
Key terms: Pharmaceutical industry, NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine, ketamine, dizocilpine, pharmaceutical industry/academic interaction, drug development, scientific and professional organizations, advancements, future prospects, health administration, regulatory aspects, Freud, antitoxins, hormone preparations, alkaloids, foods, cod liver oil, malt extracts, Second World War, vaccines, sulphonamide, Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi, Nobel Prize, chlopromazine, Henri Laborit, Jean Delay, Pierre Deniker, Daniel Bovet, Ann-Marie Straub, Institut Pasteur, Heinz Lehman, asthma, allergy, anaphylactic shock, largactil, M&B 693, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, pneumonia, imipramine, iminobenzyl, halopyramine, Robert Domenjoz, Alan Broadhurst, G22355, G22150, Ronald Kuhn, atorvastatin, Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, lobbying, standards of practice, continuing medical education, conflict of Interest, FDA, Elixir Sulfanilamide, Massengill Company, diethylene glycol, Kefauver-Harris Amendment, risk society, European Medicines Evaluation Agency, Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, New Drug Application (NDA), Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), reference member state (RMS), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), LSD, yellow card, risk-benefit relationship, drug safety, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, liver toxicity, QT prolongation, abuse potential, arrhythmia, anorexics, clozapine, Clozapine Monitoring Program, hypnotic, adverse psychiatric reactions, amnesia, depression, paranoia, L-tryptophan, remoxipride, eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), minaprine, fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine.
Section 10: Ethics in Psychopharmacology
The three chapters in this section cover the history of ethics in psychopharmacology, the ethics of psychiatric research, and the ethics of the prescription of psychotropic drugs. These chapters discuss the horrendous crimes of Nazi Germany doctors, the misuse of psychiatry the post-World War II era, and the ethical problems in research. The resulting codification of medical ethics is traced, from the Hippocratic Oath, the code of ethics by Percival, the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Declaration of Hawaii, Declaration of Madrid, and others.
Chapters 59 through 61.
Key terms: Ethics, psychiatry research, Nuremberg Code, Madrid Declaration, prescriptions, doctor-patient relationship, Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Hawaii, World Congress of Psychiatry, World Psychiatric Association, consent, principles for Policy on Mental Health, UN resolution 46/119, Royal College of Psychiatrists, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, mood disorder, depression, impulsivity, obsessions, obsessive-compulsive disorder, drug trials, FDA, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychiatry criticism, King Hammurabi, Sir Austin Bradford Hill, Thomas Percival, code of ethics, American Medical Association’s Code, World Health Organization (WHO), Nazi regime, bioethics, research, human experimentation, Darwinism, natural selection, Friedrich Nietzsche, schizophrenia, dementia praecox, Neisser case, congenital mental weakness, circular madness, manic-depressive psychosis, hereditary epilepsy, St. Vitus’ Dance, Huntington’s Chorea, congenital blindness and deafness, chronic alcoholism, Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Adolf Hitler, Sterilization Act Association for Mental and Racial Hygiene, IQ tests, Holocaust, Nuremberg Laws, Law of Protection, Marital Health Act, Euthanasia Program, Operation T4, Action T4, Action 14f13, Buchenwald, Gypsies, Slavs, homosexuals, Nuremberg Trials, Council for International, Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), international ethical guidelines, International Conference of Harmonization (ICH), Good Clinical Practice, World Medical Association (WMA), Belmont Report, Clarence Blomquist, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T), Hopkins Competency Assessment Test, Hammurabi Code, pre-Socratic Greece, Hippocratic Oath, Hindu oath, Charaka Samhita, Enlightenment, Romanticism, Positivism, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, imipramine-like antidepressants, phenothiazine, neuroleptics, and benzodiazepines, paroxetine, imipramine, urination, erection, delayed ejaculation, anorgasmia, defensive medicine, tardive dyskinesia, Salgo case, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, The Joint Commission, Manifesto of Barcelona European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness, Health Reform Act in Germany, Standing Committee of European Doctors, Good Pharmacovigilance Practices, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations, Spanish Code of Good Practice for the Promotion of Medicines.
Section 11: Law and Psychopharmacology
This section covers a wide area of information related to drug abuse, institutional misuse, and drug enforcement. From the tragic abuses of World War II, the concept of informed consent was developed. The abuse of drugs and its relationship to criminality are explored here in detail. Finally, the history of the misuse of psychotropic drugs by states and institutions are touched on.
Chapters 62 through 65.
Key terms: Legal aspects, clinical tests, informed consent, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Convention of the Council of Europe, the Spanish Medicine Law, information, voluntariness, competence, mind altering agents, criminology, political and institutional abuses of psychotropic drugs, capacity, competence, voluntariness, Lombroso, physiognomy, Opium Wars, soldier’s disease, heroin, Dreser.
Section 12: The Contribution of Psychopharmacology to the Development of Psychiatry
These chapters describe the serendipitous start of psychopharmacology from the finding of psychostimulant properties of iproniazid in tuberculosis patients. Psychopharmacology has emerged from a desire to find a “magic bullet,” but is sometime viewed as “chemical straitjackets.” With the advancement of psychiatry, it is clear that mental illness involves more than application of drugs for the treatment of the disease. Mental disease is challenging because it is stigmatizes, as well as the use of psychotropic drugs stigmatized. Over the years, this has been qualified with the measure of “quality of life.” The development of psychiatry has involved the classification of diseases.
Chapters 66 through 69.
Key terms: Social consequences, health consequences, magic bullet, chemical straitjacket, stigma of mental illness, DALY, YLL, European Brain Council, quality of improvement, quality of life, HAM-D, SCL, SAS-SR, HADS, MES, psychiatric nosology, DSM, ICD, spectrum models, CATEGO, PSE, Spitzer, diagnostic criteria, RDC, SCAN, CIDI, IPDE.
Section 13: Miscellaneous
As implied by the title of this section, a number of topics are covered in these chapters. (a) The history of the development of ECT is explored. (b) The term “serendipity,” often used in psychopharmacology, is examined with the examples, which include the discovery of chlorpromazine, imipramine, and iproniazid. (b) The origin of the word “placebo” and its occurrence in psychiatry. (c) The relationship of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. (d) The origin of the concepts of evolutionary psychopharmacology. (e) The contributions of the non-Western civilizations to psychopharmacology. (f) The use of psychopharmaceuticals on non-psychiatric diseases, and the relationship of pain, depression, and anxiety. (g) The occurrence of psychotropic drugs in the literature.
Chapters 70 through 77.
Key terms: psychopharmacological revolution, chemical imbalance, lithium, dyes, magic bullet, ECT, serendipity, ontogenesis, placebo, serpents, symbols, psychotherapy, evolution theory, non-occidental cultures, non-psychiatric uses, some psychotropic drugs as poisons, literary relevance, cultural relevance, electrical ray, empirical era, LeRoy, Theory of Mesmerism, Babinski. Charcot, experimental era, ECT era, Certletti, electrical reanimation, theory of exclusion, theory of acroagonines, Sakel, Cardiazol, New York State Psychiatric Institute, PET, SPECT, pulse width, electric wave, electrode positioning, anticonvulsive hypothesis, tolerance phenomenon, anti-Kindling effect, skeletal muscle relaxation, maintenance ECT (M-ECT), therapeutic quality, economic issues, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Section 14: Present and Future of Psychopharmacology
Section 14 reviews the present and future perspectives of psychopharmacology. Chapter 78 covers the etiopathogenic hypothesis of mental disorders and the role of classical and new neurotransmission and neurotransduction systems. Chapter 79 analyzes the contribution of genomic and proteomic techniques to the study of the pathogenesis of mental disorders and to the development of psychopharmacology. The remainder of chapters in this section cover the novel computer-based technologies in the rational design of psychiatric drugs, pharmacology of cerebral activity, and the internet and international revolution and their prevalence to psychopharmacology.
Chapters 78 through 83.
Key terms: Etiopathogenic hypothesis, classical neurotransmitters, newer neurotransmitters, neurotransduction system, genomic techniques, proteomic techniques, pathogenesis, computer-based technologies, rational design, cerebral activity, internet, information revolution
Section 15: Psychopharmacology in Spain and Latin America
Finally, in the last section, the Spanish and Latin American contributions to the development of pharmacology are compiled, explore the historical origins of Spanish psychiatry and the complementary historical perspective of Latin American psychopharmacology, along with psychopathology and preclinical psychopharmacology in Spain.
Chapters 84 through 87.
Key Terms: electroconvulsive therapy, Margarita García-Amador, Ramón Pigem, Miquel Bernardo, serendipity, ontogenesis, Alan A. Baumeister, Mike F. Hawkins, placebo, Vandana Roy, Tushar Roy, serpents, Samuel Tyano, Iris Manor, evolutionary theory, Dan J. Stein, non-Occidental cultures, Ali Gorji, non-psychiatric uses, Cecilio Álamo, Francisco López-Muñoz, Eduardo Cuenca, poisons, literary culture, relevance, Alfonso Velasco, historical origins, psychopathology, Spain, preclinical psychopharmacology, Latin America.
Volume 4: Index
Selected figures from the text